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Higher Ed Science

All forms of science encourage and advance critical thinking, problem solving and creativity; Brainfuse helps develop these skills from general biology to physics.

Brainfuse offers live online Science tutoring in the following areas:


HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Anatomical Terms: position and direction, cavities and membranes, planes and sections, variability, regions, the relationship between structure and function; Chemistry of Organic Matter: organic compounds—carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), adenosine triphosphate (ATP)); Inorganic Compounds that Affect Homeostasis: waters, salts, acids, and bases); Vital Needs; Definition of Matter and Energy: molecules, compounds, mixtures, electrons, and classification of chemical bonds; Chemical Reactions: flow of energy, rate of reaction, reversibility, common chemical relationships, equations; Cells: structure and contributions to life, the fluid mosaic model of the membrane, permeability and membrane junctions, active and passive processes in membrane transport, resting membrane potential,  cell adhesion molecules, membrane receptors, voltage-sensitive membrane channel proteins; Cytoplasm: cytoplasmic organelles; The Nucleus: nucleoli, chromatin, the nuclear envelope; Life Cell-Division Cycle: resting, interphase, mitosis, cyklins, CDKs, protein synthesis, DNA’s other tasks, cytosolic protein degradation, apoptosis; Tissue: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, nervous tissue, muscle tissue, membranous lining (cutaneous membrane, mucous membrane, serous membrane), tissue repair; tissue development; Skeletal System: structure, location, and function, cartilage; structure, function, and classification of bones; gross and microscopic anatomy of bone; chemical composition of bone; pre-natal and post-natal development of bone; bone repair and remodeling; bone disorders; changes in bone throughout the lifespan; The Axial Skeleton: the skull, the vertebral column, the thoracic cage; The Appendicular Skeleton: the shoulder girdle (pectoral), upper limb, hip girdle (pelvis), lower limb, changes in the skeleton throughout the lifespan; Joints: classification, joint injuries, conditions and disorders, changes in joints throughout the lifespan; Muscles and Muscle Tissue: properties of muscle tissue, classification of muscle tissue, functions of muscle tissue; Skeletal Muscle: gross and microscopic anatomy, sliding filament model of contraction, physiology of skeletal muscle fibers, contraction of a skeletal muscle, muscle metabolism, force and muscle contraction, duration and velocity of muscle contraction, effect of exercise on muscles; Smooth Muscles: microscopic structure, function, contraction, and classification; The Muscle System: skeletal muscles and their movements; Nervous Tissue: histology, role of membrane, synapses, neurotransmitters and receptors, The Nervous System: changes in the nervous system throughout the lifespan; Central Nervous System (CNS): the brain, mental functions, protection, the spinal cord, CNS dysfunction, changes in the CNS throughout the lifespan; peripheral nervous system; autonomic nervous system; special senses; Integumentary System: epidermis; dermis; pigmentation; appendages of the skin—sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hairs and hair follicles, nails; functions—protection, body temperature regulation, cutaneous sensation, metabolism, blood reservoir, and excretion; changes in skin throughout the lifespan; skin cancer and burns; Endocrine System: hormones, pituitary gland and hypothalamus, thyroid gland,  adrenal gland, parathyroid glands, pineal gland, glands and tissues, changes in the endocrine system throughout the lifespan; Structures that Support Senses: structures of the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin; visual inputs, the proprioceptive sensors, the inner ear vestibular system, and the central nervous system; Cardiovascular System: blood, the heart, blood vessel structure and function, physiology of circulation; circulatory pathways; Lymphatic System: lymphatic vessels, lymphatic cells and tissues, lymph nodes, other lymphoid organs, changes in the lymphatic system throughout the lifespan; Nutrition and Metabolism: diet, metabolic reactions, major nutrients, metabolic states, role of the liver, changes in metabolism throughout the lifespan; The Urinary System: structure and function of the kidney, physiology, urine, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, micturition, changes in the urinary system throughout the lifespan; Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance: body fluids, ECF osmolality, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, acidolsis vs. alkalosis; Reproductive System: anatomy and physiology of the male reproductive system; anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), changes in reproductive systems throughout the lifespan; Human Development: fertilization; embryonic development; fetal development; changes to anatomy, physiology, and metabolism during pregnancy; birth; adjustments to extrauterine life; lactation; reproductive technology and cloning; Genetics: variation, inheritance, environmental factors, nontraditional inheritance, genetic screening; Immune System: innate defenses, adaptive defenses; The Respiratory System: structure and function, mechanics of breathing, gas exchange, respiratory adjustments, respiratory disorders, changes in the respiratory system throughout the lifespan; Digestive System: structure, function, and physiology


BIOLOGY

Development of Life: water, organic molecules in organisms, enzymes, free energy changes,  a survey of theories on the origin of life; Evolution: experimental techniques used for researching the origin of life, evolution: early evolution of life, evidence for evolution, mechanisms of evolution; The Cell: microscopy and the discovery of the cell, comparison of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell structures, membranes, organelles, communication, fermentation and cellular respiration; Cellular Energetics: photosynthesis, the Krebs cycle; Cell-Division Cycle: resting, interphase, mitosis, cyklins, CDKs, protein synthesis, cytosolic protein degradation, apoptosis; Genetics: RNA and DNA structure and formation, gene regulation, meiosis and gametes, chromosomes in eukaryotes, inheritance patterns; RNA, DNA, protein synthesis, mutations, viruses; Biotechnology and Bioethics: genomes; techniques for researching genetics; Organisms and Populations: Diversity of Organisms – 8 percent, Evolutionary Patterns, Survey of the Diversity of Life, Phylogenetic Classification, Evolutionary Relationships; Microbes: common structures and functions, biodiversity; Plants: common structures and functions, cell structure, photosynthesis, transport in vascular plants nutrition, angiosperm reproduction, biodiversity; Animals: common structures and their functions, reproductive development, and responses to the environment, biodiversity; Mechanisms for Senses and Motility; Physiological Systems: digestive system, circulatory system; immune system; endocrine system; reproductive; respiratory; nervous system; neuroscience; Ecology: biosphere, behavioral ecology, conservation biology, and restoration ecology


MICROBIOLOGY

Microbe-Human Interaction: development of microbiology, symbiotic, commensal, and parasitic relationships with microbes, chemical principles, microscopy, biotechnology and DNA technology, control of microbes—sterilization and disinfection, Classification: phylogenetic relationships; taxonomy; prokaryotes–archaea and bacteria; eukaryotes–fungi, algae, protozoa, helminths, and arthropods as vectors; viruses, viroids and prions; Prokaryotes: prokaryotic structure and function; bacteria; archaea; gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria; bacterial metabolism and replication—transcription and translation, the lac operon, the Trp operon,  horizontal gene transfer; growth and culturing of bacteria; Microbial Genetics: gene transfer and genetic engineering; Pathogenesis: entering a host, bacterial pathogens, viral pathogens, pathogenic fungi, algae, protozoa, helminths, exiting the host; Eukaryotes: eukaryotic structure and function; fungi, algae, protista, viruses, prokaryotic viruses, eukaryotic viruses; Virus Form and Functions: anatomy, metabolism, replication, genetics, Avian Flu; The Host: innate host defenses, microbial diseases of each physiological system; Immunology; Epidemiology: etiology of infectious disease, classification of infectious disease, patterns of disease, the spread of infection, noscomial infections, emerging infectious diseases, vaccines; Microbial Ecology: aquatic, terrestrial, industrial microbiology, food microbiology, medical microbiology


CHEMISTRY

Matter and Measurement: states and properties of matter, units of measurement; Atoms, Molecules, and Ions: atomic theory, structure and weights, periodic table, molecules and molecular compounds, ions and ionic compounds, naming inorganic compounds, introduction to organic compounds; Stoichiometry: chemical equations, patterns of chemical reactivity, formula weights, Avogadro’s number and the mole, empirical formulas, quantitative information from balanced equations, limiting reactants; Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry: electrolytic properties, solubility and precipitation reactions, acid-base reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, concentrations of solutions, solution stoichiometry and chemical analysis; Thermochemistry: energy, endothermic and exothermic processes, enthalpy, specific heat, Hess’s law; Electronic Structure of Atoms: wave of natural light, energy, photons, Plank’s constant, orbitals and quantum numbers, electron configurations; Periodic Properties of the Elements: history of periodic elements, sizes of atoms and ions, ionization energy, metals, non-metals and metalloids; Chemical Bonding Concepts: chemical bonds, Lewis symbols, octet rule, ionic and covalent bonding, bond polarity and electronegativity, strengths of covalent bonds, bond enthalpy and length; Gases: characteristics, pressure, gas laws, gas mixtures, and partial pressures; Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids: molecular comparison of gases, liquids and solids, hydrogen bonding, comparing intermolecular forces, phase changes, vapor pressure on the molecular level, phase diagrams, structures of solids, bonding in solids; Chemical Equilibrium: establishing equilibrium, Le Chatelier’s principle; Acid-Base Equilibria: acids and bases, pH scale, strong/weak acids and bases, relationship between Ka and Kb; Electrochemistry: oxidation states and oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, balancing redox reactions, electrolysis; Introduction to Organic Chemistry: hydrocarbons, alkanes, alkenes, addition reactions of alkenes and alkynes, and organic functional groups


ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Development of Organic Chemistry; Properties of Organic Molecules: wave properties of electrons in orbitals, molecular orbitals, pi bonding, hybridization and molecular shapes, 3D models, hybridization and geometry, bond rotation, isomerism; polarity of bonds and molecules; intermolecular forces, polarity’s impact on solubility, hydrocarbons, organic properties of organic compounds with oxygen, organic compounds with nitrogen; Structures and Reactions of Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes: naming alkanes, molecular formula, structure and conformations, physical properties, sources of alkanes, uses of alkanes, cycloalkanes; Cyclohexanes: monosubstituted and disubstituted; bicyclic molecules; Classifying Chemical Reactions: enthalpy and entropy, bond-dissociation enthalpies, kinetics and rate equation, activation energy and temperature dependence of rates, transition states, rates of multi-step reactions; halogenation, Hammond postulate, radical Inhibitors; reactive intermediates; Stereochemistry: chirality, ( R) and (S) nomenclature of asymmetric carbon atoms; optical activity; enantiomers; racemic mixtures; optical purity and enantiomeric excess, diastereomers; stereochemistry of molecules with 2 or more asymmetric carbons; meso compounds; absolute and relative configuration; nucleophilic substitution and elimination; Alkyl Halides: nomenclature, uses, structure, physical properties, reactions;SN2 reactions; SN1 reactions; the E1 reaction; Zaitsev’s rule; the E2 reaction; Structure and Synthesis of Alkenes: orbital description of the alkene double bond, unsaturation, nomenclature of alkenes, nomenclature of Cis-trans isomers, uses of alkenes, physical properties of alkenes, chemical properties of alkenes, alkene synthesis by elimination and dehydration of alcohols, alkene synthesis by high-temperature industrial methods; Reactions of Alkenes: reactivity of carbon-carbon double bond, electrophilic addition to alkenes, addition of hydrogen halides to alkenes, addition of water to alkenes, hydration by oxymercuration-demercuration, alkoxymercuration-demercuration, hydroboration of alkenes, addition of halogens to alkenes, halohydrin formation,  catalytic hydrogenation of alkenes, addition of carbenes to alkenes, epoxidation of alkenes, acid-catalyzed opening of epoxides, oxidative cleavage of alkenes, polymerization of alkenes, olefin metathesis; Alkynes: rules for naming alkynes, physical properties of alkynes, chemical properties of alkynes, uses for alkynes, electronic structure, acidity and the acetylide ion; synthesis of alkynes from acetylide, synthesis of alkynes by elimination reactions, addition reactions of alkynes, oxidation reactions of alkynes; Structure of Alcohols: classification, nomenclature, physical properties, uses, acidity of alcohols and phenols, synthesis, grignard reactions, organometallic reagents, thiols; Reaction of Alcohols: oxidation states of alcohols and related functional groups, oxidation of alcohols, formation of tosylates, alcohols as nucelophiles and electrophiles, reductions, common reactions, unique reactions of diols, esterification, esters of inorganic acids; reactions of alkoxides, the Williamson ether synthesis; Mass Spectrometry and Spectroscopy: principles of spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR),measuring an NMR spectrum, chemical shifts and peak areas, spin-spin splitting, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry; Ethers, Epoxides, and Sulifides:  nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy, the williamson ether synthesis, other syntheses of ethers, cleavage of ethers, autoxidation, sulfides, epoxide syntheses, ring openings of epoxides, reaction with grignard and organ lithium reagents, epoxy resins; Conjugated Systems and Molecular Orbitals: stabilities of dienes; allylic cations; allylic radicals; molecular orbitals of the allylic system; electronic configurations of the allyl radical, cation, and anion; SN2 displacement reaction; Diels-Alder reaction; ultraviolet absorption spectrometry; Aromatic Compounds: benzene; kekule structure; resonance model; orbital model; nomenclature of aromatic compounds; electrophilic substitution reactions; mechanisms – halogenation; nitration; sulfonation; alkylation; acylation; ring-activating and ring-deactivating substituents; ortho- and para- directing groups; meta-directing groups; substituent effects on reactivity; Aldehydes and Ketones: nomenclature, the carbonyl group, nucleophilic addition reactions, alcohols, water, grignard reagents, nitrogen, reduction of carbonyl compounds, oxidation of carbonyl compounds, keto-enol tautomerism; Structure and Reactions of Amines: nomenclature, structure, physical properties, basicity, salts of amines, spectroscopy of amines, common reactions, syntheses of amines; Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives: nomenclature of acids, physical properties, acidity and acidity constants, resonance in the carboxylate ion, salt formation, preparation of acids, oxidation of primary alcohols or aldehydes; Esters: nomenclature of esters, saponification of esters, amides; Condensation and Alpha Substitutions of Carbonyl Compounds: enols and enolate ions; base-catalyzed aldol condensation; base-catalyzed dehydration of aldol; Claisen ester condensation; aldol condensations; Conjugate Additions: the Michael reaction, the Robinson annulation; Carbohydrates and Nucleic Acids: introduction, structures, classification, reactions, reductions, Fischer’s proof of the configuration of glucose, ring size, structure of dna, chain shortening, chain lengthening; Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins: structure and sterochemistry, acid-base properties, isolelectric points and electrophoresis, synthesis, resolution, reactions, peptide structure, peptide syntheses, protein structure and classification; denaturation; Lipids: waxes, triglycerides, saponification of fats and oils, soaps and detergents, phospholipids, steroids, prostaglandins, terpenes; Synthetic Polymers: structure and properties; addition polymers; sterochemistry, polymerization—Ziegler-Natta catalysts; natural and synthetic rubbers; copolymers of two or more monomers; condensation polymers


PHYSICS

Units, Physical Quantities and Vectors: problem solving, standards and units, unit conversions, uncertainty and significant figures, estimates and orders of magnitude; Motion Along a Straight Line: displacement, time, and average velocity, instantaneous velocity, motion with constant acceleration, free falling bodies, velocity and position by integration; Motion in Two or Three Dimensions: position and velocity vectors, acceleration vector, projectile motion, motion in a circle, relative velocity; Newton’s Laws of Motion; Work, and Kinetic Energy: kinetic energy and the work energy theorem, work and energy with varying forces, power; Potential Energy and Energy Conservation: gravitational potential energy, elastic potential energy, conservative and non-conservative forces, force and potential energy, energy diagrams; Momentum, Impulse and Collisions: conservation of momentum, elastic collisions, center of mass, rocket propulsion; Rotation of Rigid Bodies: angular velocity and acceleration, rotation with constant angular acceleration, relating linear and angular kinematics, energy in rotational motion, parallel-axis theorem, moment of inertia calculations; Dynamics of Rotational Motion: torque, angular acceleration for a rigid body, rigid-body rotation about a moving axis, work and power in rotational motion, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum, gyroscopes and precession; Equilibrium and Elasticity: conditions for equilibrium, center of gravity, rigid-body equilibrium problems, stress, strain and elastic moduli, elasticity and plasticity; Gravitation: Newton’s law of gravitation, weight, gravitational potential energy, motion of satellites, Kepler’s laws and motion of planets, spherical mass distributions, apparent weight and the Earth’s rotation, black holes; Periodic Motion: oscillation, simple harmonic motion, pendulums; Fluid Mechanics: density, pressure in a fluid, buoyancy, fluid flow, Bernoulli’s equation, viscosity, and turbulence; Mechanical Waves: types, periodic, mathematical descriptions, speed of transverse wave, energy in wave motion, wave interference, boundary conditions, superposition, standing waves on a string, normal modes of a string; Sound and Hearing: speed of sound waves, sound intensity, resonance and sound, interference of waves, beats, Doppler Effect, shock waves; Temperature and Heat: temperature and thermal equilibrium, thermometers and temperature scales, gas thermometers and Kelvin scale, thermal expansion, quantity of heat, calorimetry and phase changes, mechanics of heat transfer; Thermal Properties of Matter: equations of state, molecular properties of matter, kinetic-molecular model of an ideal gas, heat capacities, molecular speeds, phases of matter; first and second law of thermodynamics; Electromagnetism: electric charge and electric field, Gauss’s law and flux of an electric field, capacitance, current, resistance and electromotive force, direct-current circuits, electromagnetic induction, alternating current; Optics: nature and propagation of light, geometric optics, interference, and diffraction; Mechanics: kinematics, Newton’s laws of motion, work, energy, and power, systems of particles and linear momentum, circular motion and rotation, and oscillations and gravitation; Electricity and Magnetism: electrostatics, conductors, capacitors, and dielectrics, electric circuits, magnetostatics, and electromagnetism; Modern Physics: relativity, photons, electrons, atoms, and nuclear physics